A Washington, D.C.-based think tank released results of a survey conducted earlier this year that reflects considerable institutional resistance to the idea among special-operations troops. The RAND National Defense Research Institute produced the report at the request of U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), the four armed services and the military intelligence community. Its results emerged after Defense Secretary Ash Carter’s recent decision to open all military billets to women. “Opposition to opening SOF [Special Operations Forces] specialties to women is both deep and wide, with high levels of opposition across all SOF elements,” the report stated. “Challenges to the potential integration of women into SOF are not insurmountable and much depends on the implementation process,” it stated.