Frances Arnold, a chemical engineering, bioengineering and biochemistry professor at the California Institute of Technology, became the fifth woman to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Arnold earned the honor with research she was able to conduct thanks to an Army Research Laboratory grant she received in the 1990s. Her research led to enhanced methods of fabricating and using commercially viable and cost-effective biofuels.
“Biology makes things and the Army needs things — materials, chemicals, fuels. Biology can do this, but we have to learn the basic principles of engineering biology,” Arnold said.