However, CBO said, there are disadvantages to shedding military positions. Achieving the cost savings depends on cutting military end strength—an action that would reduce DoD’s ability to surge troops in a protracted conflict. Also, reducing commercial positions could have adverse effects on the services’ workforce management goals or unique needs.” The concept of converting positions has been explored many times before and tried to a certain extent. In an earlier report CBO said that between 2004 and 2010, DoD converted about 48,000 military positions to 32,000 civilian jobs. That report said that “even though many service members might spend part of their careers in jobs that could be performed by civilians, most are trained fighters who could be deployed if needed. Replacing such military personnel with civilians could reduce DoD’s ability to respond quickly if called upon to do so. Moreover, despite the potential cost savings, the military services try to avoid converting certain types of positions because it could lead to reductions in effectiveness or morale. For example, the Navy must provide shore positions for sailors—so that they do not spend their entire careers at sea—even if some of those positions could be filled by civilians.”