President Obama has signed into law the annual DoD authorization bill, a measure that, as it turned out, contained many of the most significant changes to federal personnel policies of the last year. However, as much as a year and a half might pass before one of the main changes takes effect: the measure gives OPM nine months to issue new rules on acceptable use of administrative leave, including a general limit of 10 days per year for an employee under an investigation that could lead to disciplinary action. Afterward, agencies will have up to another nine months to revise their record-keeping systems to better account for administrative leave in general. Other provisions could be put into effect sooner but they could be of relatively limited practical impact. Two that apply government-wide require agencies to complete disciplinary investigations and record the results in an employee’s personnel file even if the employee leaves in the meantime; and require agencies to consider personnel files when considering rehiring a former federal employee. Another would allow DoD–but not other agencies–to boost the maximum buyout payment to $40,000, out of concern that the $25,000 maximum in effect since the early 1990s is an insufficient lure for employees to resign or retire. However, it’s questionable whether DoD will offer many buyouts in the time ahead, given the incoming Trump administration’s support of beefing up military spending, and its intent to impose a general hiring freeze, which would create the same type of opportunity to downsize by attrition that buyouts generally are used for. Yet another orders a reduction in the SES cadre at DoD by a quarter to about 1,300, but spread out over as long as the next six years.