The privatization in place policy became controversial immediately after being unveiled during the 1995 round of base closings when the Clinton administration announced it would privatize in place work at two large Air Force bases in California and Texas rather than put the work up for bidding that could have resulted in moving the work but keeping it performed by federal employees. The administration eventually backed away from that plan and has carried it out only on a much smaller scale, including the three sites GAO visited for its report (NSIAD-00-23). But the dispute continues to dampen chances of Congress approving the administration’s request for further base closings, at least during this year’s session.